Research progress of surfactants in plastics indus

2022-06-21
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Research progress of surfactants in the plastic industry

surfactants are special structural molecules with hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, so they have a series of application functions, and are widely used in various fields of the plastic industry as additives

1 application of surfactants in plastic antistatic agents plastic is a high polymer material with good electrical insulation performance. However, when plastic is used as an insulating material, its surface is very easy to generate static electricity, which will lead to fire, explosion, electric shock and other accidents. Static electricity can be effectively eliminated by adding surfactants to plastics as antistatic agents

antistatic agents can be divided into external coating and internal mixing. Its action mechanism mainly has two aspects: first, the lipophilic group of the surfactant combines with the resin, and the hydrophilic group forms a conductive layer on the plastic surface or combines with the moisture in the air through hydrogen bond, so as to reduce the surface resistance and accelerate the leakage of static charge; The second is to endow the plastic surface with certain lubricity and reduce the friction coefficient, so as to restrain and reduce the generation of electric charge. Common plastic antistatic agents are: non-ionic, cationic, anionic, mixed, etc

1.1 nonionic antistatic agents

nonionic antistatic agents have the advantages of good processability and thermal stability. They mainly include polyethylene glycol esters or ethers, polyol fatty acid esters, fatty acid alkanolamides, fatty amine ethoxyl ethers and other products

Hangzhou Institute of chemistry has developed a series of non-ionic antistatic agents such as hkd-100, hkd-102, hkd-151, hkd-178, hkd-196 and hkd-1800. Among them, hkd-1800 (n, n-dihydroxyethyl octadecylamine, foreign brand: AR mostat-600) has good antistatic effect, which can reduce the surface resistance of plastic products to 108 Ω. It is widely used in PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene), PS (polystyrene), ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer) and other polymer materials

Shanxi Research Institute of chemical industry has developed kj-210 (mixture of fatty alkanolamide and its ester) and kjb-02 (organic boron non-ionic surfactant). Kj-210 is applicable to PE, PP, PS, ABS, natural rubber and other products. It has the characteristics of good antistatic performance, strong durability, good thermal stability and compatibility with other additives. Due to the introduction of boron containing polar groups into hydrophilic groups, kjb-02 shows good antistatic and thermal stability. It can be used in BOPP films (biaxially oriented polypropylene films), PP, PE and other polyolefin products, and has outstanding antistatic properties in ABS, PVC and other polymers

Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry has developed asa-40 (alkyl amine ethylene oxide adduct, applicable to PE) and asa-90 (applicable to ABS, PS, PE). Atmer129 (glycerol monohard ester), atmer163 (amine ethoxide) and atmer154 (alkoxy fatty acid ester) produced by Uniqema are widely used in PS, PVC and PE. The drewplast017 and drewplast032 (ester based non-ionic surfactants) developed by pvointernational, Inc. are mainly applicable to PE. DuPont, Stepan and other companies [7] have developed zelecty and zelecnk (alcohol phosphate type non-ionic surfactant) which can be applied to polyolefinfibers (polyolefin fiber), Myla (r polyester film) and other plastic products

1.2 cationic antistatic agents

cationic antistatic agents mainly include amine salt, quaternary ammonium salt, alkyl amino acid salt, etc., of which quaternary ammonium salt is the most important

Hangzhou Institute of chemistry has developed hkd-200 and hkd-321. Hkd-321 has excellent antistatic performance and stable chemical structure. When the concentration is 1.0%, it can be coated on various plastic plates, films and fibers to obtain good antistatic effect and reduce the surface resistance of the product to ohms. Hkd-321 is widely used for external antistatic treatment of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) kink film, ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer) draft tube, PS (polystyrene) sheet and other materials

sh-105 antistatic agent produced by Shanghai Jingwei Chemical Co., Ltd. (the former No. 3 factory of Shanghai synthetic detergent) is mainly used for PVC conveyor belts and PVC products used in coal mines. Shanghai Tiantan additives Co., Ltd. (the former Shanghai Additives Factory Co., Ltd.) has developed antistatic agents P (alkyl phosphate amine) and Sn (octadecyl dimethyl hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium nitrate). Among them, antistatic agent P has excellent effect of eliminating static electricity for synthetic fibers such as nylon, polyester and vinylon; SN is used for electrostatic elimination of polyester, polyvinyl alcohol, polyoxyethylene and other plastic products

foreign Cytec companies have developed a series of cationic antistatic agents such as cyastatsn, cyastat609, cyastatsp, which are widely used in transmission belts, printing cots, phenolic resins, etc; The cationic antistatic agent markstatic-12 developed by witcochemicalcorp is applied to plastic sheets in copiers

1.3 anionic antistatic agents

there are few types of anionic antistatic agents. The common anionic antistatic agents in China are ABPs (sodium nonylphenoxypropane sulfonate) and DPE (potassium p-nonyldiphenyl ether sulfonate). Atmer190 (alkyl sulfate) developed by u-niqema [4] can be widely used in PS, PVC, PE, PC (polycarbonate), POM (polyoxymethylene resin), PA (polyamide), TPU (thermoplastic elastomer rubber) and other fields

1.4 mixed antistatic agent

mixed antistatic agent refers to a new type of antistatic agent compounded with two or more types of surfactants, which often has better antistatic effect

the mixed antistatic agents developed by Hangzhou Institute of chemistry are S-15 and S-18 (cationic/non-ionic). S-15 is an antistatic agent for PVC. It is suitable for soft and semi-rigid PVC. It has the advantages of excellent heat resistance and stable antistatic performance. The amount of S-15 in PVC is 1.% The resistance of the plastic surface can be reduced to 107 ohms

the mixed antistatic agent asa150 (cationic/non-ionic) developed by Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry is specially designed to provide effective antistatic properties for PVC and polyurethane (PU) products, and can also be used in rubber and polyolefin plastic products

The application of surfactant in foamed plastics foamed plastics with microporous structure is a kind of widely used plastic products. When foamed plastics use foaming agent to generate a large number of bubbles in the polymer, in order to maintain the stability and uniformity of the bubbles, surfactant must be added as a foam stabilizer. Its main function is to reduce the surface tension of the cell wall and promote the maintenance of a certain positive pressure in the cell, so as to control the growth and stability of the cell, so that the cell is neither broken nor collapsed. Foamed plastics can be divided into phenolic foamed plastics, polyurethane foamed plastics, etc

2.1 phenolic foam

phenolic foam (PF) is a kind of foam formed by mixing, foaming and curing phenolic resin with surfactants, foaming agents, curing agents and other processing aids. With the development of high-rise buildings, aviation industry, transportation and space technology, the requirements for thermal stability and flame resistance of foamed plastics are becoming more and more strict

compared with PS foam, PE foam and PU foam, PF has the advantages of flame retardant, self extinguishing, low smoke and flame resistance. Surfactants commonly selected by PF include JFC (fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether), OP-10 (alkyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether), AES (fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sodium sulfate), Tween-20, Tween-80 (Tween series non-ionic surfactants), pluronicf-127 (polypropylene glycol and ethylene oxide adduct), dc-dc-193 (silicone surfactants), etc

wangjinfu investigated four non-ionic surfactant systems: dc-193tween-80, dc-193/tween-80 and dc-193/jfc, and studied the effects of different systems on the properties of phenolic foam. The results showed that the comprehensive properties of foam were the best when dc-193/tween-80 was used. Shang Ping selected non-ionic surfactants (Tween-80, Tween-20, dc-193, OP-10) and anionic but low control precision ionic surfactants (AES) as foam stabilizers for phenolic resin. It is found that when tween-80/dc-193/aes is used, the comprehensive properties of phenolic resin foam are the best

2.2 polyurethane foam

in recent years, the polyurethane (PU) industry has developed rapidly because of the excellent performance of PU materials. Its soft foam has many excellent characteristics, such as light weight, softness, insulation, air permeability, non toxicity, good resilience, humidity resistance, aging resistance, organic solvent resistance, sound insulation, heat preservation, etc. Therefore, it is widely used in transportation, construction, decoration, industrial equipment, pipe insulation, light industry Civil furniture and other fields

surfactants (mainly organosilicon surfactants) are one of the essential components in the foaming process of PU foams. Jin Xinwen synthesized the foam stabilizer h-420 (organic silicon surfactant) for PU soft foam. The main properties of its foam are equivalent to those of imported products. Yan Min [24] synthesized silicone surfactant (low hydrogen polysiloxane and allyl terminated polyether as intermediates) and applied it to the production of Pu hard foam with good foam uniformity

Ni produced by momentiveperformancancmaterials abroad, such as room cleaning axsiliconese-232 (organosilicon surfactant) and niaxm-6682 (ester surfactant), can be used to prepare PU foams. 3 application of surfactants in other aspects

3.1 application of surfactants in plastic fillers

CaCO3 modified by surfactants can be filled in plastics, and its processability and mechanical properties can be greatly improved. Jihongnian has synthesized alkyl phosphonates with different carbon chain lengths and used for the modification of light calcium carbonate. When the dosage is 2.5% (modifier/calcium carbonate mass ratio), It can obviously improve the surface properties and filling properties of the plastic filler CaCO, and the processability and mechanical properties of the soft PVC system can be significantly improved, and the processability of the single ester modification is better than that of the double ester with the same carbon chain length

3.2 application of surfactants in plastic surface cleaning

surfactants can also be used in plastic surface cleaning. Liuyali studied the cleaning agent for plastic surface. The cleaning agent is composed of Las (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate), TX (octylphenol polyoxyethylene ether) and Ta (polyether type non-ionic surfactant). It has good cleaning effect on ABS, PVC, PP, phenolic plastics, etc. Said yield point or physical yield strength

3.3 application of surfactant in plastic film

plastic greenhouse film made by adding dripping agent can reduce or eliminate fog drops on the film and increase sunlight penetration in the greenhouse, so as to improve the greenhouse temperature, enhance photosynthesis and promote crop growth. When used in the packaging film of fresh goods, it can eliminate or reduce the fog beads of the packaging film, improve the visibility in the bag, reduce the mildew of the goods, and thus improve the value of the goods

Beijing Research Institute of chemical industry has developed FY type polyethylene trickling agent (composed of a variety of non-ionic surfactants) which is mainly used for PVC greenhouse film and PVC packaging film. In addition, FY series products can also be used for EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate copolyester) agricultural film

at present, China is actively developing surfactants for plastic industry. However, compared with large foreign companies, China's plastic surfactants mainly imitate the products of large foreign companies, and there is still a big gap in terms of variety and quality. Therefore, we should vigorously strengthen the technical cooperation between colleges and enterprises, and develop high-performance, low-cost, green and environmental friendly surfactants for the plastic industry

note: the reprinted contents are indicated with the source. The reprint is for the purpose of transmitting more information, and does not mean to agree with their views or confirm the authenticity of their contents

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